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Thread: Paper 101

  1. #1
    Boolit Buddy catboat's Avatar
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    Paper 101

    I've read a number of paper patching posts and sites over the years, and Matthews "The Paper Jacket", and I would like to offer some info to paper patcher users. I used to work in the paper manufacturing business (actually I sold process chemicals to paper machines) for nearly 25 years. My expertise was optimizing the wet end chemistry of paper machines for maximum retention of solids (fiber and filler) and soluble (sizing, strength additives) material to achieve customer specs of paper for paper making companies. I have a B.S. in Paper Science and Engineering (now retired, but going back to school to be a dental hygenist. Why? I'm tired of overnight travel, and I wanted to do something different.)

    I hope these comments can help the reader think out some issues, to assist in loading.

    Paper is made from a suspension of wood fiber and water. The fibers run in length from "long" (for a soft wood fiber, which is added for sheet strength-sort of like re-bar for concrete), to "medium" (hardwood fiber) to "short" (ground wood fiber for newsprint/directory/coated groundwood magazine paper), to "very short" (called "fines" which are less than 76 micron). Too much long fiber makes paper with lousy formation (blotchy). This has poor printing and production properties (poor couch vacuum respones, poor printing, poor smoothness, and expensive (softwood kraft is expensive).

    Depending on the type of paper being made, fiber lengths are blended to give enough strength, and good runnability on the machine, with desired end physical properties of paper (tensile, tear, burst, porosity, Hercules ink test/sizing, optical properites such as brightness and opacity and others). Fiber by itself, no matter what the length distribution is, can't do it all by itself for printing grades. Because of this, other additives are put into the mix. For increasing opacity and brightness, various fillers are added-such as calcium carbonate (CaC03, precipitated CaCO3>"pcc" or ground CaCO3>"gcc", titanium dioxide (tio2), clay (for acid pH machines), various chemical optical/fluorescent whiteners/brighteners additives (oba or fwa this gives you the "96" or higher blue white bright paper, and glows in a blue light presence). PCC and GCC are cheaper than fiber, so the papermaker tries to use as much as possible to reduce fiber costs (but also causes loss of strength), while maintaining the balance / compromise to machine runnablitily, and final physical/optical properties. For printing grades, it is common to have inorganic filler levels (pcc, gcc, tio2 or combinations of them, or clay-in acid/neutral systems) in the 20-26+% range in the base sheet.

    Fillers are abrasive (ie titanium dioxide/TiO2 , clay ). The lighter the basis weight the sheet of paper is, a higher level of inorganic fillers are added (and weaker the sheet), so as to maintain opacity (think "onion skin" writing paper or paper used for Bibles). Keep this in mind when you shoot a paper patched bullet.

    Other chemicals are added to the base sheet of the the paper to give printing properties. One is "sizing". In alkaline papermaking, which is the majority of the paper mills, usually AKD or ASA sizing is used to the base sheet ("internal" sizing). These chemicals by themselves don't impact any negative issues to rifle bores, but they do create an issue for wrapping a bullet. The more a sheet of paper is sized, the more water resistant it is. It takes longer to have a paper patch "get soft" or "weak" for wrapping. You can do quick test to see how much sizing the sheet of paper has you are using if you simply lick on spot on one side of the paper. See how long it takes to show a wet spot on the other side. Count the time in seconds. This will give you a good idea of the amount of sizing. Consider two sheets of paper: your local newspaper (which is unsized, or at most, minimally sized), and a sheet of writing paper, or onion skin (heavily sized). If you lick the newsprint, it will "show through" a wet spot almost immediately. If you do it to writing paper, it can take 10-60-100's of seconds, depending on the grade of paper. Sizing (base sheet, or "internal sizing") is used to make paper more printable at the presses for sharp images.

    Low or unsized sheets have a capillary effect or "feathering" when supjected to inks. Highly sized sheets have crisp images, with limited feathering. Try this with your newsprint and fine writing paper. Use a felt tip or fountain pen on the newsprint, and then on the writing paper. The newsprint will have a high degree of "feathering." Sizing is sometimes added to the dry paper called "surface sizing" as well. So, a sheet of paper can be very water resistant (not water proof, or strong like paper towels, which use wet strength resins to retain fiber strength when wet, ie "Bounty" paper towels holding a cup of coffee at "Rosie's Diner" (if you are old enought to remember those tv commericials).

    If you want to wrap a bullet, you can add some baking soda to your wetting solution. Baking soda will raise the pH of the water (more alkaline, or basic), and penetrate the highly sized sheet faster, to allow the fibers to get some water. You can also use warm/hot water (with or without the baking soda), as heat speeds all chemical reactions. You may also be able to "wet out" highly sized sheet of paper using vineger (which is acetic acid, and make it work even faster by using heated vinegar). I don't recommend it for paper patchers, as the acidic residue can lead to corrosion. Stay with the much safer (no corrosion issues) alkaline/basic higher pH (>7.0) such as baking soda and water. Try ~ half teaspoon (amount not critcal) of baking soda in a pyrex dish (about 2-3 oz) and fully dissolve (hot water will help dissolve it faster too).

    Paper is also treated with internal and external starch to provide sheet strength. Starch is cheaper than fiber. Paper makers want to reduce the long costly strong fiber as much as possible. Starch gives the sheet "rattle." You notice this in onion skin. Hold one sheet of onion skin and shake it. A sheet with a high level of starch will have a rattle noise to it. That's because it is stiff, like adding starch to a shirt.

    Starch can be abrasive to a rifle bore. Not much, but some. Starch by itself doesn't provide sizing, but it aids in retaining sizing to the sheet. So, if you have a lightweight, highly sized sheet, it likely has a fair amount of starch. It contributes to the wettability of the patch, and the abasion to the bore. Starch on the patch, may lead to some of the bore deposits sometimes mentioned. ( side note: Also, if some people use egg white as a protein binder to hold/glue a patch together, this can be a compliment source for those hard brown deposits in the bore.)

    Paper has various physical properties (ie strength). Probably the most important to paper patchers is "tear." A paper machine squirts out a watery mix of fiber and additives at ~ 0.5-1.0% solids at the headbox slice. The "slice" (orifice from which the fibrous mixture exit) is about 1/4" or so wide, by as wide as the machine (8 ft to over 24 feet long). It squirts onto a revolving "conveyor belt" called a "wire." The wire is a continous belt, made of plastic mesh. I am simplifying the description a great deal but it looks like a highly woven window screen. The velocity of the wire is ususally just a tad faster than the linear velocity of the exiting jet stream of fiber from the slice. This differential is called "drag". It aligns the long fiber a bit for machine directional strength (which is important for runnability and profits). If you have too much drag, you get too much machine direction (MD) tear resistance (strength) , and less cross machine (CD or CMD) strength. When the MD tear = CMD tear, this is called a "square sheet." This is not necessarily good or bad, it just is. It depends on if you need this property for customer specs or machine runnability (and usually it's a compromise between the two).

    You can measure MD or CMD tear yourself. Take a sheet of paper and tear the sheet along one axis of the sheet of paper, then 90 degree along the other axis of the paper. If the fibers are aligned in the major axis, due to the DRAG of the wire" slice velocity, the sheet will tear EASIER along the major or machine direction MD). If you turn the sheet 90 degrees, it will normall be harder to tear across the machine (CMD) direction. This is because you are trying to tear ACROSS the longer fibers that have been aligned slightly by the DRAG created between the linear velocity difference between the jet/slice velocity and the wire. If you try tearing a sheet in 90 degree directions, and don't notice much of a difference, this is likely due to the sheet "being square" for tear measurements (cross machine tear ~= machine tear). Nothing wrong with a "square sheet" for the papermaker, customer, or paper patcher. Just don't get frustrated in trying to find the "stronger direction." You aren't wrong, you just proved to yourself the sheet has a square tear. Wrap it, and shoot it.

    With this knowledge, you can now wrap your bullets with a paper paper so that you get maximum strength in the wrapping direction (which is the machine direction, or the direction with the aligned fibers due to the DRAG). So, any sheet of paper you have, you can give a little tear, then turn 90 degrees, and measure the tear again to see which one is stronger/weaker. The WEAKER tear is the STRONGER tensile (or PULLING) force, which is the machine direction, which is the axis you want to wrap AROUND the bullet, or PERPENDICULAR to the bullets major axis. Get that? Read it again until you have it down.

    You can also do a quick test by holding a smale square ( ie 1" x 1") piece of paper in the palm of your hand. The moisture and heat from your hand will cause the paper to curl. The paper will curl in the CROSS MACHINE direction (or , the direction with the least amount of long fiber aligned with it.) This will help you position paper before cutting on a template.

    Paper is abrasive. Non-coated paper contains up to 26+% inorganic filler. (don't use glossy coated paper, as that has even more filler in the surface applied coating. Not good for paper patching).

    Tracing paper is good for paper patching because it has minimal organic filler. You don't want opacity in tracing paper. So, tracing paper is great for paper patching because it is strong, thin, and has minimal abrasive properties due to minimal inorganic fillers ( "ash content"), minimizkng barrel/ bore abrasion ( longer barrel life).

    LENS PAPER may be good, if I can find a source which is thick enough. Think about it, you don't want abrasives in lens paper to damage expensive optical lenses. You want it to be strong, and have some to minimal water resistance.

    If you can't find a good source of lens paper, stick with .002-.003" tracing paper (to double wrap a bullet, to get ~ 0.08-0.010" total thickness/added diameter.

    Your homework:
    Bring a micrometer to the paper store and measure the thickness of the paper for your needs.

    Class is now dismissed.

    Go have fun during recess.
    Last edited by catboat; 03-07-2019 at 11:15 AM.

  2. #2
    Boolit Master
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    Lens paper is a rice paper, no?

    I think you will be little able to tell a difference among most papers on the target or the barrel, provided the fit of bullet+patch to bore is the same.

    Just my wager and experience.

    good stuff though. I like to know more about paper.
    Brent

  3. #3
    Boolit Master

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    Catboat,
    I personally want to thank you for the time spent on writing the article. It means a lot to me.
    Personally, I want the abrasive qualities of paper in my bore. I use this property to "fire lap" my bore. I do like em smooth. Paper is incredibly abrasive.
    Never thought of using sodium bicarbonate to help wetting. Hmmmm. I have had issues with patches not adhering to themselves. I went quickly with the water this time. Some of my patches started unrolling.
    Your article makes sense.
    I plan on definately rereading it later.
    Thanks

  4. #4
    Boolit Buddy
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    Thanks for the info catboat.
    This is what I really love about this site. The guys here really know their sh t, and they're not afraid to share their knowledge with others.
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  5. #5
    Boolit Master yondering's Avatar
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    Wow, thanks for all the information Catboat. I'll have to come back and read that again.

    I've also had some trouble with paper not sticking to itself, especially with tracing paper or other stronger paper that resists tearing well. Any suggestions? Will the baking soda/ hot water make it stick, just by getting it "wetter"?

  6. #6
    Boolit Master

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    great stuff. now I have to apply it.

  7. #7
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    Catboat,
    I think I got the wood fiber thing, but could you say something about 'cotton' or 'rag' content?
    CM
    Retired...TWICE. Now just raisin' cows and livin' on borrowed time.

  8. #8
    Boolit Buddy catboat's Avatar
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    In days of old, (late 1800's) paper (some grades) were indeed made from recycled rags. Chemical pulping of wood was still developing. Paper machines were small and slow. Pulp was made in batches (like using a big blender, called a "beater."). Rags were used to be the "long fiber." It was too long, (bad formation) so it was chopped up in the beater, as the fibers were subjected to mechanical energy (refining). Rags were used in various proportions, much like softwood kraft is used today.

    Cotton linters were used (cotton fibers), in the same manner. They gave great strength.

    Not many, if any, paper mills making paper from actual rags (there used to be one in the Albany area of NY about 10 years ago, not sure if still there).

    Currently, term "rag content" and "cotton" refer to the % cotton linters (not actual rags), added to the paper pulp process (linters are much easier to process than actual rags, but harder to handle than soft wood kraft fibers).
    Last edited by catboat; 03-07-2019 at 11:19 AM.

  9. #9
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    Great stuff...you read very little about papers, thanks a bunch. Want to give us the run down comparison between rag and wood papers?

  10. #10
    Boolit Buddy catboat's Avatar
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    In general terms, everything I mentioned in "Paper 101" applies to both. Specifically, "rag" or "cotton content" papers need to have (if I remember correctly) at least 25% cotton linters to be considered (and be able to be called) " x percent rag/cotton content" (with 25% the minimum to qualify). The cotton linters also give a cotton rag content sheet " rattle."

    Typically cotton/rag paper is "high quality" but that is a subjective term. It usually refers to printing qualities, such as good ink hold out (sizing) for good crisp ink images or printing (check paper, is very good paper). So, you need to keep that in mind when trying to wet the cotton/rag paper. It will require more time to penetrate (try the "lick test" and count the time for a wet spot to show through the other side ).

    Now, "wood paper" or "wood-containing" paper is a term you probably swerved unknowingly into. What you probably meant was "non-rag fiber" or "non-cotton linter containing paper." In that case, again, "paper 101" applies. However, to be technically correct, "wood-containing" paper means the paper contains groundwood, which is a mechanical or thermomechanical (TMP) or chemi-thermomechanically (CTMP) made pulp. Ground wood fiber ("wood fiber") is short, bulky and weak. Groundwood fiber is litterally ground on a course grinding stone, with water/steam and applied pressure. A piece of raw wood has fiber which is in a defined structure. Wood fiber (either hard wood or soft wood) is held together by a "glue" called lignan. Chemical pulping (sulfate or kraft process (same thing) ,sulfite chemical pulping uses various pH levels, high temperatures to dissolve the interfiber bonding lignan (glue). Lignan free pulp is then usually bleached to a whitish color (exception paper bag paper is in the natural unbleached color-and often a brown dye is added to uniform batch to batch production.)

    Mechanical pulping, ie groundwood pulping, literally grinds the fiber and lignan in chunks. It is similar to having a brickwall (simulating fiber and lignan) with brick (the fiber) and the mortor (the lignan, or bonding agent). If you took a big grinding wheel and ground down a brick wall, or took sledge hammer to a brick wall, you'd come up with chunks of brick and mortar. Lignan (or "mortar") does nothing for strength (and requires the need of starch and long softwood kraft fiber to hold the sheet together. Ground wood fiber is usually the cheapest pulp to produce.

    "Fine paper" . by definition, does not contain any groundwood fiber (or actually I think the percentage is no more than 2-3%). This is also called "wood free" pulp or paper. So, you probably swerved into a term (wood fiber paper) that you didn't know about, and now are dreading the fact you even asked in the first place.

    Directory paper (which is generally ligher weight and stronger newsprint) is used in phone books. It is largely "wood containing" (or, it contains groundwood-perhaps up to 40-65++% ground wood. It typically does not have sizing , which is why ink "bleeds" or "feathers" in newsprint. Because wood containing fibers /paper are generally not sized (or if so, only moderately-and this is happening more at high end groundwood paper mills to produce a product /sheet that the printer (the customer) likes for sharp images) using groundwood containg paper ("wood containing" fiber or paper) will wet out very quickly.

    So, in general, paper is paper is paper, except when it is different.

    Can I go now?

    Bonus tidbit:

    In case you start asking about paper currency. Our currency (USA dollars and higher) are printed on exceptionally high quality paper, and is sized very hard. It is made at ONLY ONE PAPER MILL IN THE WORLD (and it's in the US). It's made by Crane Paper in Western Massachusetts. Crane also makes fine writing paper, you've probably seen it with its water mark. The Crane Co. paper mill (in Dalton, Mass) is HEAVILY guarded with security (to prevent counterfitting). Any unused scrape of raw currency paper is accounted for. They mean business there. The blank rolls of paper is converted to cut sheet paper, and is then printed at the US Treasury building in D.C. The trucks carrying the unprinted paper (going to the US Treasury for printing) is closely watched. Don't even think about "truck jacking" a load of Crane Co. paper. If you are lucky, they will kill you quickly. No one will know though (just kidding)-but I'm not kidding about the high level of security at the manufacturing or transporting of the unprinted currency paper.
    Last edited by catboat; 08-15-2008 at 09:59 PM.

  11. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by catboat View Post
    I'm doing some investigating. In my opinion, the best paper may NOT be tracing paper or onion skin.

    LENS PAPER may be good, if I can find a source which is thick enough. Think about it, you don't want abrasives in lens paper to damage expensive optical lenses. You want it to be strong, and have some to minimal water resistance.

    If you can't find a good source of lens paper, stick with .002-.003" tracing paper (to double wrap a bullet, to get ~ 0.08-0.010" total thickness/added diameter.
    Yikes!...you forgot to tell us about '100% linen' paper, Professor.

    One of the first results in a Google search for 'lens paper' yielded this...

    Ross Optical Lens Tissue
    Non-abrasive. Processed from 100% linen stock; free of mineral and vegetable filler. Does not lint or scratch and will not disintegrate under vigorous manipulation.

    Ross Lens Tissue, 21.6 x 35.6cm (8-1/2 x 14")
    Ross Lens Tissue, Large pkg/100 $17.00


    Now to try to find out how thick it is...
    CM
    Last edited by montana_charlie; 08-15-2008 at 11:49 PM.
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  12. #12
    Boolit Mold
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    Thank you for the explanation. What is the relationship between the weight of the paper and the gauge? I have read about 9 lb and 16lb etc. In Europe you see 80 grams/m2 or 60 grams/m2 etc.

  13. #13
    Boolit Buddy catboat's Avatar
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    Linen paper:

    Ok, another "dual definition word" in papermaking. This one is faster to explain.

    "Linen", when meaning the CONTENT , or FIBER used in a sheet or grade of paper refers to the use of the flax plant as a fiber source.

    "Linen" when referred to as a FINISH of a sheet of paper is an embossed texture which is rolled into the surface of the sheet, by mechanical means. It imparts a fine / delicate pattern or texture that has x and y directional threads (like a sheet) showing "warp" and "weft" (the x and y, or 90 degree directions of textile manufacturing such found using a loom. It's supposed to mimic the look of a woven sheet of fabric. A linen finish is just used for aesthetic, not functional, reasons.

    I presume when you see "linen" referenced for lens paper, it refers to the CONTENT, not the finish. Flax plant fiber is a very strong fiber, making a very strong sheet. Could be great for paper patching, because of its strength (probably can be pulled tightly when damp for a good wrap. Flax plant, and flax seed is expensive, so the resultant paper made from it is pricey. Use of linen/flax fiber is for functional reasons (high strength applications).

    That lens paper could be very interesting. I'm curious too, what the thickness is of it. Could be a great find.
    -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Basis Weight

    Paper is made in various weights, due to customer needs, or applications. You see paper listed as 16Lb , 20, 24lb, or 9 lb (and others). It is simple a weight per quantity of paper (actually weight per area). It is usually 3000-3200 square feet (depending on grade). This quantity is called a "ream."

    The area of a standard ream of paper (3200 square feet) works out to be 500 sheets of 17" x 22". This is essentially 4 pieces of 8.5" x 11" paper laid flat, then having 500 layers. If you then weight that stack of 500 sheets, the weight (or basis weight) would be the "poundage" of 9 lb, 16 lb, 20 lb, 24 lb etc.

    Heavier paper is usually thicker. Paper can have it's density altered by mechanical means. One way is to beat /refine the wet pulp so that the hollow fibers collapse. It has less bulk, or, higher density per pound. One example of this is tracing paper. The collapsed fibers have less opacity, and for tracing paper-as you want to be able to see through it, it is good for that application. The second way of altering bulk or density is by litterally squeezing the paper between two "nips" (contact area of two rolls) that are stacked on top of each other. This is called a calender press. The rolls are highly engineered to have heat (steam) applied, and also have alternating rolls of hard and "softer" rolls to have more contact area in the nip (to squish the paper, and also to slightly polish or "burnish" the paper for increase gloss. This paper is called "super calendared paper" or "SC" paper in the trade. An example of this is the paper used to print Rolling Stone magazine. It looks sort of like coated paper, as it has gloss. SC paper would be a poor choice for paper patching, as it is highly filled with inorganic materials (calcium carbonate, and possible some clay or tios) to the level of 25%+++. It would be abrasive, or a "polisher" for sure.

    Europeans simply express the weight of paper per area in metric terms, in grams per square meter (or sometimes expressed as "gsm").
    Last edited by catboat; 08-17-2008 at 10:28 AM.

  14. #14
    Boolit Buddy
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    Catboat:

    As a retired paper mill instrument technician I really enjoyed your posts. They brought back old times. Thanks for an excellent study of paper making.

    Bill

  15. #15
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    Quote Originally Posted by catboat View Post
    That lens paper could be very interesting. I'm curious too, what the thickness is of it. Could be a great find.
    This webpage has contact information for Ross.
    http://www.photonics.com/directory/viewprofile.asp?companyID=12905&plac
    ement=bglistadv&advertiser=yes&coid=R87500&divid=0 00&codivid=R87500000&
    refcat=41790

    I have emailed them with a query about 'thickness'.
    CM
    Last edited by waksupi; 08-16-2008 at 02:14 PM.
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  16. #16
    Boolit Master

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    Catboat, thanks for this posting, you say that directory paper is mostly wood pulp, is there much clay or other abrasives? I think that it "wetting out" quickly won't be too great a problem when rolling it onto a boolit. I was thinking of using paper from an old phone book untill someone put forward that there is some type of acid in it. Is there anything it phone book paper that will make my rifle barrel unhappy?
    WHEN IN DOUBT, USE MORE CLOUT!

  17. #17
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    Methinks this is worth making a sticky.

    Many Thanks for the education Catboat.

    I spent some time with hand made paper makers in Japan when I was into kitemaking. That was fascinating and hard graft.
    Last edited by dromia; 08-17-2008 at 03:44 AM.


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  18. #18
    Boolit Buddy catboat's Avatar
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    "...directory paper is mostly wood pulp, is there much clay or other abrasives? "
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Directory ("phone book") paper is low ash (inorganic filler content). Depending on the manufacturer, it's probably in the 5+% range. Directory paper isn't sized, so it wets out fast. It is also a relatively weak paper, due to a high groundwood content (bits of brick and mortar/ chunks of fiber and lignan, which provides BULK and COMPRESSABILITY for the printer, not strength).

    If it works for you, then great.

    Remember, when Sharps paper patched their bullets in the 1880's, the paper they used didn't have much, if any filler. Fibers were long and strong , no ground wood. The paper was likely low-medium sized (likely with alum /rosin on an acidic process), if sized at all. Not sure, but a guess.

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------
    Tidbit: Is paper really abrasive?

    Just before the dried paper gets rolled up on the reel on a paper machine (the last part of the paper machine), each edge of the sheet is trimmed a few inches to get the proper width sheet. The trimming is done with a thin sharpened steel "slitter", which is circular (6" or so). It looks like a rolling pizza slicer. The slitterspins, and makes the cut. Modern (fast) paper machines use a fine jet of high pressure air to to it now, so as to not have to replace circular steel slitters (cost and efficiency issues for production).

    The steel slitters are replaced on a regular basis, due to the sheet of paper (and ash) dulling the slitters-resulting in poor edges, or worse, sheet breaks. Modern paper machines make paper at well over 3000-4000 feet per minute. A paper patched bullet travels down the bore at 1500-2500 feet per SECOND. Does anyone doubt that paper and high ash content is not abrasive to the bore? It may be called "polishing" or a degree of "fire lapping," but it's still a factor.
    Last edited by catboat; 08-17-2008 at 06:42 PM.

  19. #19
    Boolit Grand Master leftiye's Avatar
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    So what are the paper characteristics that we need for paper patching? I originally wanted to ask about a paper with mostly long fiber pulp content, as to whether it would be strong enough and etc. Then the questions about linen and lens paper arose.

    My feeling leans toward a tough (strong) flexible paper that will resist cutting (somewhat- must "confetti" at the muzzle) by the rifling, and that will stretch some so it will wrap tightly, and that also will stick to itself (hopefully without glue being added). Is there anything like that?

    Lately, I've been taking thinner papers (maybe even cigarette papers) more seriously because my Marlin/NEF barrel's grooves are only 2.5 thous deep. Does that sound like the right direction to go to y'all? The lens paper that CM mentioned sounds exciting to me too!

    Glad to see this is a sticky. Some of the best info so far on patching material. Should get even better as we look at specific papers and specific paper characteristics.
    We need somebody/something to keep the government (cops and bureaucrats too) HONEST (by non government oversight).

    Every "freedom" (latitude) given to government is a loophole in the rule of law. Every loophole in the rule of law is another hole in our freedom. When they even obey the law that is. Too often government seems to feel itself above the law.

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  20. #20
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    Been wearing out my Google button looking at information on 'paper'.
    One thing that doesn't surprise me, but still gripes my butt...

    Among BPCR shooters, a very popular type of patching paper would be described as, "Onion Skin Paper 25% Cotton 9 lb. White 8.5 x 11"

    A well-known BPCR supplier selling paper with that description gets Ten Dollars for 100 sheets and Forty-Four Dollars for 500 sheets.

    The first online 'paper store' I found with paper matching the same description wants twenty-two bucks per 500-sheet ream.
    http://www.thepapermillstore.com/pro...productid=9304

    CM
    Retired...TWICE. Now just raisin' cows and livin' on borrowed time.

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Abbreviations used in Reloading

BP Bronze Point IMR Improved Military Rifle PTD Pointed
BR Bench Rest M Magnum RN Round Nose
BT Boat Tail PL Power-Lokt SP Soft Point
C Compressed Charge PR Primer SPCL Soft Point "Core-Lokt"
HP Hollow Point PSPCL Pointed Soft Point "Core Lokt" C.O.L. Cartridge Overall Length
PSP Pointed Soft Point Spz Spitzer Point SBT Spitzer Boat Tail
LRN Lead Round Nose LWC Lead Wad Cutter LSWC Lead Semi Wad Cutter
GC Gas Check